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Glossary

Ageism:

According to the gerontologist Robert Butler, who was the first researcher to evoke this concept, ageism is related to a process by which a person is stereotyped and discriminated against on the basis of his or her age (1968).

Since this initiative by Butler to conceptualize ageism, several studies have shed light on the fact that, while both youths and adults can be the target, the reality tends to show that it is seniors who most often pay the price. Moreover, although ageism shares close resemblances with racism and sexism (it is articulated around the same logic aimed at the exclusion of an individual or a group based on a criterion), it is distinguished from them in that it is largely tolerated, or at least it is little denounced.

Source: Lagacé, M. & Tougas, F. (2010), "À quand la retraite?" Le paradoxe de l’âgisme au travail dans un contexte de pénurie de main-d’œuvre., In M. Lagacé (ed.), L’âgisme. Comprendre et changer le regard social sur le vieillissement, Québec, Les Presses de l’Université Laval, p. 241-262.

Assault:

"Assault is a crime. It happens when a person uses force or threatens to use force on another person without their consent. Consent given under duress or because of fear is not true consent. It doesn’t matter if the person makes the threat directly or indirectly. A person does not give true consent if someone uses force to get their consent, or if they consent out of fear or deception."

Source: Ministère de la Justice du Canada (2012). "Child Abuse is Wrong. What can I do?"

Criminal harassment:

The Criminal Code stipulates that: "No person shall, without lawful authority and knowing that another person is harassed or recklessly as to whether the other person is harassed, engage in conduct (...) that causes that other person reasonably, in all the circumstances, to fear for their safety or the safety of anyone known to them."

Source: Criminal Code of Canada, section 264.

Death threats:

Threats to cause death that are uttered and conveyed in any manner.

Source: Criminal Code.

Direct discrimination:

"Direct discrimination occurs when it is fairly clearly based, after admission or analysis of the evidence, on one or more prohibited grounds of discrimination. These forms of discrimination are manifested, for example, in situations of refusal of leasing, hiring, or access to a public place or a means of transportation."

Source: La diversité : une valeur ajoutée, Plan d’action gouvernemental pour favoriser la participation de tous à l’essor du Québec 2008-2014, Ministère de l'Immigration et des Communautés culturelles.

Discrimination:

"Every person has a right to full and equal recognition and exercise of his human rights and freedoms, without distinction, exclusion or preference based on race, colour, sex, gender identity or expression, pregnancy, sexual orientation, civil status, age except as provided by law, religion, political convictions, language, ethnic or national origin, social condition, a handicap or the use of any means to palliate a handicap.

Discrimination exists where such a distinction, exclusion or preference has the effect of nullifying or impairing such right."

Source: Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms, section 10.

Discriminatory harassment

"Discriminatory harassment may be defined as conduct involving repeated words, actions or gestures (or, in some circumstances, a single serious action that creates an ongoing negative effect), designed to annoy or express contempt, targeted at a person or group, based on one of the grounds listed in Section 10 of the Charter [of Human Rights and Freedoms]."

Source: Commission des droits de la personne et des droits de la jeunesse du Québec (2004), Discriminatory Harassment in the Workplace, A Policy against discriminatory harassment in the workplace, p. 14.

Domestic violence:

Domestic violence is characterized by a series of repetitive actions that usually follow an upward curve. […] Aggressors perpetuate a cycle defined by consecutive phases marked by tension building, aggression, avoiding taking responsibility, remission, and reconciliation. In this cycle, the victim will feel fear, anger, responsibility for the violence, and hope that the situation will get better. All phases may be present or not and may follow a different sequence.

Domestic violence includes psychological, verbal, physical, and sexual abuse, as well as actions of financial domination. It is not the result of a loss of control, but it is, on the contrary, a chosen means to dominate others and assert power over the victim. Domestic violence can be experienced at any stage of life in a marital, extramarital, or dating relationship.

Source: Adaptation from Gouvernement du Québec (1995). "Prévenir, Dépister, contrer la violence conjugale", Politique d’intervention en matière de violence conjugale, Ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux et al.

Elder abuse:

"Elder abuse is a single or repeated act, or lack of appropriate action, occurring within any relationship where there is an expectation of trust which causes harm or distress to an older person. […]" There are different forms of abuse: physical, psychological or emotional, sexual, material or financial, human rights violations, and neglect."

Source: Gouvernement du Québec (2010), Governmental Action Plan to Counter Elder Abuse 2010-2015, Ministère de la Famille et des Aînés.

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Exploitation:

"Exploitation is the act of taking advantage of a person's vulnerability or dependency to deprive them of their rights. The Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms prohibits exploitation of the elderly and of disabled persons."

Source: Commission des droits de la personne et des droits de la jeunesse, website, section « Exploitation ».

Extortion:

"Every one commits extortion who, without reasonable justification or excuse and with intent to obtain anything, by threats, accusations, menaces or violence induces or attempts to induce any person, whether or not he is the person threatened, accused or menaced or to whom violence is shown, to do anything or cause anything to be done."

Source: Criminal Code of Canada, section 346.

Homophobia:

Homophobia means "[a]ll negative attitudes leading to the rejection of and direct or indirect discrimination against gays, lesbians, bisexuals, transsexuals and transgenders, or against persons whose appearance or behaviour does not conform to masculine or feminine stereotypes".

Source: Gouvernement du Québec (2009). "Fight Against Homophobia", Québec Policy Against Homophobia, Ministère de la Justice.

Indirect discrimination:

"Indirect discrimination stems from the application of a seemingly neutral rule, policy, or practice that nonetheless adversely affects a person or a group of people."

Source: Gouvernement du Québec (2008). "La diversité : une valeur ajoutée", Plan d'action gouvernemental pour favoriser la participation de tous à l'essor du Québec 2008-2014, Ministère de l'Immigration et des Communautés culturelles.

Intersectional discrimination:

Intersectional discrimination means any situation of discrimination that is based on more than one of the prohibited grounds under Québec's Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms, namely sex and ethnic origin or sexual orientation and social status.

Source: Ministère de l'Immigration, de la Diversité et de l'Inclusion.

Neglect:

In the Youth Protection Act, section 38(b), "“neglect” refers to: [...] a situation in which the child’s parents or the person having custody of the child do not meet the child’s basic needs, [...] failing to meet the child’s basic physical needs with respect to food, clothing, hygiene or lodging, taking into account their resources […] failing to give the child the care required for the child’s physical or mental health, or not allowing the child to receive such care […] failing to provide the child with the appropriate supervision or support, or failing to take the necessary steps to provide the child with schooling".

The Governmental Action Plan to Counter Elder Abuse defines neglect as follows: "The omissions of any act required to maintain the well-being of a senior, regardless of whether the omission is deliberate or due to a lack of knowledge or lack of awareness about any given situation."

Source: Gouvernement du Québec (2010), Governmental Action Plan to Counter Elder Abuse 2010-2015, Ministère de la Famille et des Aînés.

Prejudices:

"Prejudices based on stereotypes. They are judgments, usually unfavourable, made by an individual against another individual, whom he or she does not know, and by giving him or her characteristics specific to the group to which he or she belongs."

Source: Gouvernement du Québec (2008). "La diversité : une valeur ajoutée", Plan d'action gouvernemental pour favoriser la participation de tous à l'essor du Québec 2008-2014, Ministère de l'Immigration et des Communautés culturelles.

Psychological harassment:

In the Act respecting labour standards (section 81.18), psychological harassment "means any vexatious behaviour in the form of repeated and hostile or unwanted conduct, verbal comments, actions or gestures, that affects an employee's dignity or psychological or physical integrity and that results in a harmful work environment for the employee.

A single serious incidence of such behaviour that has a lasting harmful effect on an employee may also constitute psychological harassment."

It should be noted that sexual harassment is included in the legislative definition of psychological harassment.

Psychological ill-treatment:

The Youth Protection Act, section 38 (c), "refers to a situation in which a child is seriously or repeatedly subjected to behaviour on the part of the child’s parents or another person that could cause harm to the child, and the child’s parents fail to take the necessary steps to put an end to the situation. Such behaviour includes in particular indifference, denigration, emotional rejection, excessive control, isolation, threats, exploitation, particularly if the child is forced to do work disproportionate to the child’s capacity, and exposure to conjugal or domestic violence."

Physical abuse:

The Youth Protection Act (section 38(e) provides that physical abuse refers to "(1) a situation in which the child is the victim of bodily injury or is subjected to unreasonable methods of upbringing by his parents or another person, and the child’s parents fail to take the necessary steps to put an end to the situation; or (2) a situation in which the child runs a serious risk of becoming the victim of bodily injury or being subjected to unreasonable methods of upbringing by his parents or another person, and the child’s parents fail to take the necessary steps to put an end to the situation."

Racial profiling:

"Racial profiling is any action taken by one or more people in authority with respect to a person or group of persons, for reasons of safety, security or public order, that is based on actual or presumed membership in a group defined by race, colour, ethnic or national origin or religion, without factual grounds or reasonable suspicion, that results in the person or group being exposed to differential treatment or scrutiny. Racial profiling includes any action by a person in a situation of authority who applies a measure in a disproportionate way to certain segments of the population on the basis, in particular, of their racial, ethnic, national or religious background, whether actual or presumed."

Source: Commission des droits de la personne et des droits de la jeunesse (2011), "Racial Profiling and Systemic Discrimination of Racialized Youth, Report of the Consultation on Racial Profiling and its Consequences, One year later: taking stock".

Racism:

Racism can be defined as "[t]he set of ideas, attitudes and actions that as a whole intend to or have the effect of considering national or ethno-cultural groups as inferior socially, financially, culturally, or politically, which is keeping them from fully taking advantage of the benefits granted to other citizens".

Source: Gouvernement du Québec (2008). "La diversité : une valeur ajoutée", Plan d’action gouvernemental pour favoriser la participation de tous à l’essor du Québec 2008-2014, Ministère de l'Immigration et des Communautés culturelles.

Sexual abuse:

The Youth Protection Act (section 38(d) provides that sexual abuse refers to "(1) a situation in which the child is subjected to gestures of a sexual nature by the child’s parents or another person, with or without physical contact, and the child’s parents fail to take the necessary steps to put an end to the situation; or (2) a situation in which the child runs a serious risk of being subjected to gestures of a sexual nature by the child’s parents or another person, with or without physical contact, and the child’s parents fail to take the necessary steps to put an end to the situation."

Sexual and sexist stereotypes:

"Stereotypes are used to attribute rigid characteristics to men and women that have the effect of placing them in limiting roles (boys must be good at sports, aggressive, ambitious, and girls must be kind, emotional, and sexy). A person who does not respond to the stereotypes associated with a particular gender may be marginalized. Also, sexual stereotypes maintain unbalanced relationships between men and women, where women remain at a disadvantage in comparison to men."

Source: Secrétariat à la condition féminine.

Sexual assault:

"Sexual assault is a sexual act, with our without physical contact, committed by an individual without the consent of the victim or, in some cases, and especially when children are involved, through emotional manipulation or blackmail. It is an act that subjects another person to the perpetrator’s desires through an abuse of power, the use of force or coercion, or implicit or explicit threats. Sexual assault violates the victim’s fundamental rights, including the right to physical and psychological integrity and security of the person.

This definition applies regardless of the age, sex, culture, religion or sexual orientation of the victim or of the perpetrator of the assault, regardless of the type of sexual act committed or the place or life setting in which it is committed, and regardless of the relationship between the victim and the perpetrator. Certain other terms are also used to refer to sexual assault, including “rape,” sexual abuse,” “sexual offence,” “sexual contact,” “incest,” “prostitution” and “child pornography.” "

Source: Ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux (2001), Orientations gouvernementales en matière d’agression sexuelle (Government directions on sexual assault), p. 22.

Sexual harassment:

Sexual harassment is an infringement of equality rights. It is prohibited under Sections 10, 10.1, and 46 of Québec's Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms as well as under Section 15 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

Sexual harassment is characterized as follows:

  • "can be words, gestures, behaviour or physical contact of a sexual nature;
  • usually occurs repeatedly, but can also be one serious incident
  • unwelcome by the person targeted, man or woman;
  • has a negative effect on the work environment, including a direct impact such as dismissal or disciplinary measures, or an indirect impact, such as an uncomfortable work environment."

Source: Éducaloi, Sexual Harassment in the Workplace

Stereotype:

"Ready-made, caricaturized images of members of a group that are imposed on us by the environment or the culture, and repeated, or acted upon, without ever submitting them to critical scrutiny."

Source: Commission des droits de la personne et des droits de la jeunesse, "Situations d'apprentissage pour les enseignants et enseignantes du premier cycle du secondaire".

Systemic discrimination:

Systemic discrimination arises when various laws, rules, policies, or practices, directly or indirectly discriminating in nature, interact to produce or maintain exclusion effects for the members of a group or a community to whom the prohibition of the discrimination applies based on one or several of the grounds prohibited by Québec's Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms.

Source: Gouvernement du Québec (2008). "La diversité : une valeur ajoutée", Plan d'action gouvernemental pour favoriser la participation de tous à l'essor du Québec 2008-2014, Ministère de l'Immigration et des Communautés culturelles.

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Last modified date :
April 19, 2017