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Glossary

Ageism:

”Ageism is a form of discrimination based on age and targeting seniors in particular. It is reflected in hostile or negative attitudes, harmful gestures, or social exclusion.”

Source: Guide d'accompagnement pour la réalisation de la démarche Municipalité amie des aînés - 2e édition (in French)

Criminal harassment:

The Criminal Code stipulates that ”No person shall, without lawful authority and knowing that another person is harassed or recklessly as to whether the other person is harassed, engage in conduct (...) that causes that other person reasonably, in all the circumstances, to fear for their safety or the safety of anyone known to them.”

Source: Criminal Code of Canada, section 264.

Death threats:

Threats to cause death that are uttered and conveyed in any manner.

Source: Criminal Code of Canada

Discrimination:

”Every person has a right to full and equal recognition and exercise of his human rights and freedoms, without distinction, exclusion or preference based on race, colour, sex, gender identity or expression, pregnancy, sexual orientation, civil status, age except as provided by law, religion, political convictions, language, ethnic or national origin, social condition, a handicap or the use of any means to palliate a handicap.

Discrimination exists where such a distinction, exclusion or preference has the effect of nullifying or impairing such right.”

Source: Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms, section 10.


Domestic violence:

Domestic violence includes psychological, verbal, physical, and sexual abuse, as well as actions of financial domination. It is not the result of a loss of control, but it is, on the contrary, a chosen means to dominate others and assert power over the victim. Domestic violence can be experienced at any stage of life in a marital, extramarital, or dating relationship.

Source: Plan d’action gouvernemental en matière de violence conjugale 2018-2023 (in French)

Elder abuse:

A single or repeated act or lack of appropriate action, whether intentional or not, that is observed in a relationship where there should be trust between the caregiver and care recipient and that causes harm or distress to the latter.

Sources: Plan d’action gouvernemental pour contrer la maltraitance envers les personnes aînées 2017-2022 (in French)
La maltraitance envers les personnes avec incapacité : recension des écrits et portrait statistique (in French)


Exploitation:

"Exploitation is the act of taking advantage of a person's vulnerability or dependency to deprive them of their rights. The Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms prohibits exploitation of the elderly and of disabled persons."

Source: Commission des droits de la personne et des droits de la jeunesse website, “Exploitation” section (in French).

Extortion:

"Every one commits extortion who, without reasonable justification or excuse and with intent to obtain anything, by threats, accusations, menaces or violence induces or attempts to induce any person, whether or not he is the person threatened, accused or menaced or to whom violence is shown, to do anything or cause anything to be done."

Source: Criminal Code of Canada, section 346

Homophobia:

Homophobia means all “negative attitudes toward homosexuality that can lead to direct or indirect discrimination against gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and transexuals or people perceived as such.”

Source: Plan d’action gouvernemental de lutte contre l’homophobie et la transphobie 2017-2022 (in French) 

Neglect:

The Youth Protection Act, section 38(b), states that “neglect” refers to: (1) a situation in which the child’s parents or the person having custody of the child do not meet the child’s basic needs, i. failing to meet the child’s basic physical needs with respect to food, clothing, hygiene or lodging, taking into account their resources, ii. failing to give the child the care required for the child’s physical or mental health, or not allowing the child to receive such care, iii. failing to provide the child with the appropriate supervision or support, or failing to take the necessary steps to ensure that the child receives a proper education and, if applicable, that he attends school as required under the Education Act (chapter I-13.3) or any other applicable legislation".

The Plan d’action gouvernemental pour contrer la maltraitance envers les personnes aînées 2017-2022 (in French) defines neglect as follows: “Not caring about a senior, particularly by failing to take appropriate action to meet his or her needs.”

Prejudices:

Prejudices are “preconceived opinions based on stereotypes. They are judgements -- usually unfavourable -- made by one individual about another person whom he or she does not know. They involve attributing characteristics that he or she believes are associated with the group to whom the person belongs.”

Source: Politique québécoise en matière d’immigration, de participation et d’inclusion – Glossaire (in French)

Psychological harassment:

In the Act respecting labour standards (section 81.18), psychological harassment “means any vexatious behaviour in the form of repeated and hostile or unwanted conduct, verbal comments, actions or gestures, that affects an employee's dignity or psychological or physical integrity and that results in a harmful work environment for the employee. For greater certainty, psychological harassment includes such behaviour in the form of such verbal comments, actions or gestures of a sexual nature.

A single serious incidence of such behaviour that has a lasting harmful effect on an employee may also constitute psychological harassment.”


Physical abuse:

The Youth Protection Act, section 38(e), states that physical abuse refers to “(1) a situation in which the child is the victim of bodily injury or is subjected to unreasonable methods of upbringing by his parents or another person, and the child’s parents fail to take the necessary steps to put an end to the situation; or (2) a situation in which the child runs a serious risk of becoming the victim of bodily injury or being subjected to unreasonable methods of upbringing by his parents or another person, and the child’s parents fail to take the necessary steps to put an end to the situation.”

Racism:

Racism can be defined as “[t]he set of ideas, attitudes and actions that as a whole intend to or have the effect of considering national or ethno-cultural groups as inferior socially, financially, culturally, or politically, which is keeping them from fully taking advantage of the benefits granted to other citizens.”

Source : Politique québécoise en matière d’immigration, de participation et d’inclusion – Glossaire (in French)

Sexual abuse:

The Youth Protection Act, section 38(d), states that sexual abuse refers to “(1) a situation in which the child is subjected to gestures of a sexual nature by the child’s parents or another person, with or without physical contact, including any form of sexual exploitation, and the child’s parents fail to take the necessary steps to put an end to the situation; or (2) a situation in which the child runs a serious risk of being subjected to gestures of a sexual nature by the child’s parents or another person, with or without physical contact, including a serious risk of sexual exploitation, and the child’s parents fail to take the necessary steps to put an end to the situation.”

Sexual assault:

"Sexual assault is a sexual act, with our without physical contact, committed by an individual without the consent of the victim or, in some cases, and especially when children are involved, through emotional manipulation or blackmail. It is an act that subjects another person to the perpetrator’s desires through an abuse of power, the use of force or coercion, or implicit or explicit threats. Sexual assault violates the victim’s fundamental rights, including the right to physical and psychological integrity and security of the person.

This definition applies regardless of the age, sex, culture, religion or sexual orientation of the victim or of the perpetrator of the assault, regardless of the type of sexual act committed or the place or life setting in which it is committed, and regardless of the relationship between the victim and the perpetrator.

Source: Stratégie gouvernementale pour prévenir et contrer les violences sexuelles 2016-2021 (in French)

Sexual harassment:

Sexual harassment is an infringement of equality rights. It is prohibited under sections 10, 10.1, and 46 of Québec's Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms as well as under section 15 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

Sexual harassment is characterized as follows:

  • "can be words, gestures, behaviour or physical contact of a sexual nature;
  • usually occurs repeatedly, but can also be one serious incident;
  • unwelcome by the person targeted;
  • has a negative effect on the work environment, including a direct impact such as dismissal or disciplinary measures, or an indirect impact, such as an uncomfortable work environment."

Source: Éducaloi, Sexual Harassment in the Workplace

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Last modified date :
June 28, 2021