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Characteristics and manifestations of bullying

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  • Unequal power relationship
  • A generally deliberate act resulting in harm or hurt;
  • Repetitive nature1.


Direct or indirect bullying

  • Physical
    • trip
    • push intentionally
    • restrain
    • strike
    • etc.
  • Verbal
    • insult, mock, ridicule
    • threaten
    • make remarks that are sexist, homophobic, transphobic, or racist
    • make remarks that discriminate on the basis of age or other personal characteristics
    • etc.
  • Social
    • propagate lies or rumours
    • denigrate, humiliate
    • look at in a scornful or threatening manner
    • isolate, exclude
    • etc.
  • Material
    • destroy
    • vandalize
    • take another’s goods (including, for example, images on the Internet)
    • etc.

Verbal, social, or material bullying may be perpetrated by means of information and communication technologies (social networks, text messages, e-mails, blogs, Web sites, etc.)

Direct or indirect bullying has harmful effects for the person targeted, which could also affect other people involved and have a negative impact on their environment.

  1. Depending on the context, a single—objectively serious—gesture could also be associated with acts of bullying without being repetitive in nature (i.e. assault causing injury, armed assault, or death threat).

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Last modified date :
December 16, 2016